Science and Society

Science and society intersect in myriad ways in the history of immunization. These timelines explore the ethical, legal, cultural, scientific, and technological implications of the science of vaccinogy from its roots in late 18th century England to present times.

Scientific discoveries and technological innovations appear in the Breakthroughs category. Key findings, such as the discovery of various infectious agents, the creation of the first artificially attenuated vaccine, and the development of methods of culturing viruses in the laboratory receive attention.

The Vaccines and Society category highlights the cultural side of the science of vaccinology. Read about legal issues, vaccine resistance, vaccine tragedies, and large-scale immunization efforts.

View both caterogies together, or choose one to look at specifically.


Did You Know?

The British Vaccination Act of 1898 provided a conscience clause to allow exemptions to mandatory smallpox vaccination. This was the first use of the term “conscientious objector.” More

Park’s Diphtheria Campaign

In 1921, William H. Park launched a massive program in New York City to immunize schoolchildren with diphtheria toxin-antitoxin mixture. More