The History of Vaccines explores the role of immunization in the human experience and examines its continuing contributions to public health


Careers in Vaccine Research

A variety of careers are available in basic vaccine research and development, clinical trials, production, and distribution of vaccine to the public. These jobs are available in universities, industry, government laboratories and agencies, hospitals, and on the front line of vaccine distribution all over the world. More

Biological Weapons, Bioterrorism, and Vaccines

A biological attack may seem more like a plot element in an action film than a realistic threat. Biological attacks, however, have occurred in the past. A collection of U.S. government agencies are involved in planning responses to potential biological attacks. More

Different Types of Vaccines

Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines). More

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease

The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes. More
Which now vaccine-preventable disease may have emerged in epidemic form as a result of increasing cleanliness of the water supply?
Whooping cough

The improved American sanitary conditions of the early 1900s meant that exposure to polio was delayed until later in life, when a child had lost maternal protection and was also more vulnerable to the most severe form of the disease. Read more in our polio timeline.