The History of Vaccines explores the role of immunization in the human experience and examines its continuing contributions to public health

About This Project

Vaccines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Two vaccines for STDs are currently in use. Ongoing efforts to develop vaccines for herpes simplex and HIV may prove successful in the future. More

Vaccine Development, Testing, and Regulation

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Systems for developing and testing vaccines emerged after the 19th century, when many vaccines began to be used. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines developed during the 20th century as the groups involved standardized their procedures and regulations. More

Different Types of Vaccines

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Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines). More

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease

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The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes. More
When and where did the last known case of wild variola minor smallpox take place?
In 1975, in Bangladesh
In 1977, in Somalia
In 1978, in Great Britain
In 1949, in the United States
B

The last known case occurred in Somalia in 1977. Read more