The History of Vaccines explores the role of immunization in the human experience and examines its continuing contributions to public health


Vaccine Injury Compensation Programs

In many countries, adverse medical events resulting from vaccination are compensated by government programs. More

Human Papillomavirus Infection

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can cause a variety of medical conditions. Many HPVs are sexually transmitted, and some can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, and throat. Two HPV vaccines are licensed in the United States, one protecting against four strains of HPV, and the other protecting against two. HPV vaccination is recommended in the United States for adolescents. More

Different Types of Vaccines

Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines). More

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease

The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes. More
With which virus is the Australia antigen associated?
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Measles virus
Yellow fever virus

This antigen is a surface protein of the Hepatitis B virus. Read more