The History of Vaccines explores the role of immunization in the human experience and examines its continuing contributions to public health

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Vaccines for Teenagers

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Parents keep babies on track with immunizations by making frequent doctor visits. Teenagers also need vaccines, but they don’t visit the doctor as often as young children. Not surprisingly, many teenagers haven’t received the vaccines they need to be fully protected. More

Vaccine Development, Testing, and Regulation

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Systems for developing and testing vaccines emerged after the 19th century, when many vaccines began to be used. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines developed during the 20th century as the groups involved standardized their procedures and regulations. More

Different Types of Vaccines

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Vaccines are made using several different processes. They may contain live viruses that have been attenuated (weakened or altered so as not to cause illness); inactivated or killed organisms or viruses; inactivated toxins (for bacterial diseases where toxins generated by the bacteria, and not the bacteria themselves, cause illness); or merely segments of the pathogen (this includes both subunit and conjugate vaccines). More

The Human Immune System and Infectious Disease

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The human immune system is essential for our survival in a world full of potentially dangerous microbes. More
With which virus is the Australia antigen associated?
Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Measles virus
Yellow fever virus
B

This antigen is a surface protein of the Hepatitis B virus. Read more