The History of Vaccines Blog

Adenovirus Vaccines Reinstated After Long Absence

Adenovirus 3, 4, 7 vaccine, 1958. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Eighteen years after the sole manufacturer of adenovirus vaccine announced its discontinuation, adenovirus type 7 and type 4 vaccines are once again available for U.S. military trainees. The adenovirus vaccination program resumed in October 2011, with enlisted soldiers receiving the vaccine during basic training. The re-licensure of the vaccine required significant investment by the U.S. government and long years of testing and regulatory review, during which rates of adenovirus illness in the military rose. The history of the vaccine’s disappearance illustrates the precarious position of some of our lesser-used vaccines. More

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What’s in a Name? Or, Will Vaccination Turn Your Children into Cows?

Gillray, 1802. National Library of Medicine When we think of vaccine, we think of injections. But when 18th century medical men thought of vaccine, they thought of cows. That’s because “vaccinae” is Latin for “of or pertaining to cows”, and the word entered the modern medical lexicon through the title of the famous 1798 work by Edward Jenner, “An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease discovered in some of the Western Counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the Cow-Pox.”

Many generations of admiring doctors and historians have noted this title without observing that Jenner was engaged in a bit of sleight of hand. The disease he described was, indeed known as the Cow Pox by those who had bothered to give it a name: the dairymaids and farmers who were most susceptible to it. The disease, as he noted, appears on the nipples of cows, and then is communicated to the dairymaids, and then “through the farm, until most of the cattle and domestics feel its unpleasant consequences”. It was Jenner, perhaps after consultation with his medical mentors, like John Hunter, who gave it the Latin name, starting with Variolae – the Latin medical term for smallpox  -- and adding to it the designation Vaccinae – of or from cows. More

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World TB Day: Looking to the International Tuberculosis Campaign

TB Ward, Turkey, 1890s, Library of Congress In June 2010 we ran a blog post about the International Tuberculosis Campaign, a post-WWII effort that TB tested and vaccinated tens of millions of people in 23 countries. The tenor of the campaign was optimistic and heroic, evident in this 1948 radio announcement from the president of the Danish Red Cross: “The spirit of the Nordic Vikings has been part of this campaign as in the old days. Earlier we went out sword in hand to conquer and fight each other. Today we go out together with the needles as our only weapon to fight the scourge of the Second World War: tuberculosis” (Brimnes 2007). Despite the wide reach of that promising campaign, tuberculosis today is an enormous global problem, with 1.4 million deaths from the disease and 9 million new cases a year. The disease orphans millions of children and robs individuals and communities of vital earning capacity. Worryingly, each year more than 500,000 cases of multidrug-resistant TB occur, and in December 2011 several cases of completely drug resistant TB were reported in India. Emergence of resistant strains of TB highlights the need for effective TB vaccines to try to prevent infection entirely. More

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The Anti-Vaccination Society of America: Correspondence

Anti-vaccination handout, no date. The Historical Medical Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia We set ourselves the task yesterday of examining a set of materials in the College’s Historical Medical Library from the Anti-Vaccination Society of America. This organization was active in the late 1800s and early 1900s, along with a collection of other anti-vaccination leagues of somewhat confusing overlap and origin. The materials we have seem to come from the period that the society was active from the Terre Haute, Indiana, home of Frank D. Blue. Blue served as secretary of the society and seems to have been responsible for much of its day-to-day activity, including editing the society’s periodical, Vaccination. The society’s president at the time, L.H. Piehn, was a Nora Springs, Iowa, banker whose daughter was reported to have died from the effects of smallpox vaccination in 1894. Blue corresponded widely with other anti-vaccination societies, including the American Anti-Vaccination League in New York and societies in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Massachusetts, and England. Moreover, he seems to have been involved with a collection of other reform groups active at the time, including anti-vivisectionists (who often objected to the idea that rabies was an infectious disease), temperance advocates, vegetarians, homeopaths, phrenologists, “scientific palmists,” and a society for the prevention of premature burial (that latter was a particular interest of British anti-vaccinator William Tebb). More

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Bird Flu Research to Be Published in Full

Influenza ward, U.S. Army, Base Hospital No.88, Langres, France. 1918 or 1919, NLM. Recent furor around research on the H5N1 virus strain that has caused influenza in birds and rare cases of severe influenza in people may have died down for the time being after last week’s meeting of a group of experts assembled by the World Health Organization. They recommended that two different groups involved in what has come to be seen as controversial research should publish their findings in full. A halt on the bird flu research in question and publication of those data is still in place, however, and will likely last a few months longer.

To date, this H5N1 virus is not efficiently transmissible among humans – in fact, humans generally have been infected only after close contact with infected poultry. But virologist Ron Fouchier at Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam manipulated the virus so that it became easily transmissible between ferrets via airborne droplets. (Ferrets are a useful standin for humans in influenza studies.) A team headed by Yoshihiro Kawaoka at the University of Madison-Wisconsin accomplished similar results: both papers were under review for publication by science journals before the controversy developed. More

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Dateline: Edinburgh, 1802

Pox and the City. Courtesy Lisa Rosner We were pleased to see Lisa Rosner, PhD, in the Historical Medical Library here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia the other day. Rosner, who is professor of history at Stockton College as well as an advisor to History of Vaccines, is the recipient of an NEH grant in the digital humanities to develop a role-playing game about early smallpox vaccination in Scotland. She was in the library finding great materials for the game, and we’re looking forward to playing it and promoting it when it’s completed. Keep an eye on her blog to read about the progress her team is making on the game. You can also follow her on Twitter to enjoy her musings on the history of medicine and her book The Anatomy Murders. The post below is reproduced from her blog with her permission.

Imagine a world in which there are no antibiotics, no routine medical checkups, no blood tests, and no sterile surgery. Imagine a world in which people are surrounded by deadly microbes, with no way to hold them in check. And now imagine that there exists one, and only one, proven vaccine: the vaccine for smallpox. The trouble is, that vaccine is very new and largely untested.

Now imagine that you live in Edinburgh in 1802. A young doctor in the city, Alexander Robertson, is trying to set up a vaccination dispensary, to protect people from the deadly smallpox virus while establish a paying medical practice. More

Rukhsar's Story: A Little Girl with the Last Case of Polio in India?

Rukhsar Khatoon was diagnosed with the last confirmed case of polio in India on 1/13/11, pictured here with her mother We are looking for Rukhsar Khatoon, the young girl with the last reported case of wild poliovirus in India, when we set out for Shahpara village, near Kolkata in the Indian State of West Bengal. It had already been a long day of monitoring a polio immunization campaign and as we walk on, we see groups of vaccinators, lugging “vaccine carriers” and notebooks, headed back to the health center where they started the day’s activities.

Rukhsar, the focus of our search, was just 18 months old when she was paralyzed by polio in January 2011. Although her two siblings received polio vaccinations, Rukhsar was often sick with diarrhea and despite encouragement from local health workers her parents had thought it was safer for her to avoid the vaccine.

We find Rukhsar’s father on the broad, cobbled path that runs through the heart of the village and he leads us to his home. He, like most others in Shahpara, is an embroidery worker who spends long hours creating intricate designs with colorful thread and beads, the famous zardozi work that adorns beautiful clothing worn throughout the country. More

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Hotez at CHOP on Neglected Tropical Diseases

Ascaris lumbricoides, CDC/James Gathany On Wednesday, January 11, 2012, Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD, gave the Maurice Hilleman Pediatric Grand Rounds lecture at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia/University of Pennsylvania. Hotez is an internationally recognized expert on tropical diseases and vaccine development and holds the following positions: Professor of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology & Microbiology and Chief of the Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine; Endowed Chair of Tropical Pediatrics at Texas Children’s Hospital; and President, Sabin Vaccine Institute. More

Approval of Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine for Adults

Streptococcus pneumoniae, CDC, Janice Carr Many medications that are essential for the health of children were first developed to treat adults and only later tested on children. Adults tend to have more illnesses than children, which may provide more testing opportunities. Many researchers feel that it is ethically preferable to try new medicines for children only when they already have a record of safety in adults. For vaccinations, the process is often reversed because adults are not prone to acquiring certain infections (e.g., Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]) or because vaccinating children is likely to have benefits both in childhood and later in adulthood (e.g., the varicella vaccine protects children from varicella disease, which in turn protects them from varicella zoster, or shingles, as adults). The history of pneumococcal vaccine is different and points out some of the different challenges of preventing disease in adults versus children. A well-tolerated and safe polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV] for adults has been around for three decades. This vaccine was not useful in very young children because they have inadequate production of antibodies to polysaccharide antigens and hence are unprotected when given PPSV. (See this video of vaccine developer John Robbins, MD, discussing why this is so.) However once the success of protein-conjugated polysaccharide vaccines was appreciated, a number of them were developed for young children. There are three successful conjugate vaccines for children: Hib, meningococcal, and pneumococcal. Hib vaccine is not needed for adults because of the negligible risk of this infection in adults. Conjugate meningococcal vaccine is standard for children and can also be used for adults who are at unusually high risk of meningococcal disease because of medical condition or travel to a part of world where meningococcal disease occurs in epidemics. Now, as of December 2011, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV-13] has been approved for use in adults. More

U.S. Cell Line Facility to Produce Pandemic Influenza Vaccine

Influenza virion, CDC/Cynthia Goldsmith A Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., manufacturing facility in North Carolina has geared up to produce pandemic influenza vaccine made from mammalian cell lines, rather than from the traditional hen egg-based methods that have been used for more than 50 years. The plant, open since November 2009, was dedicated in a December 12 ceremony after Novartis submitted a Biological License Application for the vaccine to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The cell-based system and production methods are similar to those that have been licensed and used for seasonal influenza vaccine in Europe since 2007. More