Human Papillomavirus Infection

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The College of Physicians of Philadelphia
Immunization record for an individual born in 1996
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can cause a variety of medical conditions. Many HPVs are sexually transmitted, and some can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, and throat. Two HPV vaccines are licensed in the United States, one protecting against four strains of HPV, and the other protecting against two. HPV vaccination is recommended in the United States for adolescents. More

History of Anti-vaccination Movements

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Though many consider vaccination a top public health achievement of modern medicine, opposition to vaccination dates back to its introduction in the early 1800s. More

Influenza Pandemics

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In contrast to seasonal outbreaks of influenza, pandemics occur when a new subtype or strain of the influenza virus develops, to which humans have little pre-existing immunity. The three pandemics that occurred during the 20th century spread rapidly and globally, and resulted in many deaths. More

Passive Immunization

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Passive immunity results when a person is given someone else’s antibodies. The protection offered by passive immunization is short-lived, usually lasting only a few weeks or months. But it helps protect right away. More

Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development

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Human cells have been used to develop vaccines against many diseases, including rubella, chickenpox, and rabies. More

Vaccines for Pandemic Threats

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Vaccination will likely be part of a multi-faceted public health response to the emergence of a pandemic illness.Not all disease threats, however, have a corresponding vaccine, and for those that do, there are significant challenges to their use in a pandemic. More

Top 20 Questions about Vaccination

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Detailed answers to those most frequent questions about vaccination. More

Early Tissue and Cell Culture in Vaccine Development

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Tissue and cell culture have played an important role in vaccine development, and current research efforts expand on that technology. More

Misconceptions about Vaccines

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Misconceptions about vaccines have persisted for decades because of a poor understanding of how vaccination works and an often skewed notion of the human immune response. More