This page contains a list of resources consulted by History of Vaccines staff during the development of the website, as well as some that we recommend for those interested in further exploration of immunization and the history of vaccines.

Historical Resources

  • Contagion: Historical Views on Diseases and Epidemics
     From Harvard University libraries, this site is a digital collection of resources from Harvard's libraries.
  • Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccination
    The University of South Carolina presents digitized primary documents related to Jenner’s work with cowpox and smallpox. The online exhibit is a based on a museum exhibit of the same name.
  • Edward Jenner Museum
    The Edward Jenner Museum occupies Jenner’s country house and offers a variety of learning opportunities for students and those interested in the history of medicine.
  • The Pasteur Institute
    The Nobel Prize Foundation offers a history of The Pasteur Institute, which won a Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine in 1965.
  • Nobel Prizes in Medicine
    Many pioneers in immunology and vaccine development have won Nobel Prizes in Physiology/Medicine. lists all the winners since Emil von Behring won the prize in 1901 for his work on diphtheria.

Vaccine and Immunization Resources

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Immunization
    The AAP site offers information about the immunization schedule for children, including resources to answer parents’ common questions about vaccines.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccines and Immunizations
    The CDC maintains the current immunization schedules (for children, adolescents and adults) as well as information for international travelers who may require additional vaccines, answers to common questions, data about side effects and vaccine safety, and statistics about vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Resources from the Immunization Action Coalition cover a range of topics, some of them targeted specifically to healthcare providers. 
  • PATH's Vaccine Resource Library
    International health nonprofit PATH gathers top immunization resources in its Vaccine Resource Library, which links to high-quality, scientifically accurate materials on specific diseases and topics in immunization.
  • Vaccine Education Center at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)
    The Vaccine Education Center offers videos, printable fact sheets and answers to frequently asked questions about immunization. The site provides detailed information about specific vaccines, as well as an explanation of the comprehensive vaccination schedule and a discussion of vaccine safety.
  • is the federal gateway to information on vaccines and immunization for infants, children, teenagers, adults, and seniors. provides resources from federal agencies for the general public and their communities about vaccines across the lifespan.
  • Vaccine Safety Net
    The World Health Organization assembles a list of reliable providers of information on vaccines. Visit their site to learn about their criteria for inclusion and find reputable sources of information in a variety of languages.
    En español. Spain's Asociación Española de Vacunología presents this comprehensive site for Spanish-speaking parents and practitioners on a range of vaccine issues.
    Pediatrician Vincent Ianelli, MD, has written more than 400 articles about vaccines.


  • Allen, Arthur. Vaccine. The Controversial Story of Medicine's Greatest Lifesaver. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.
  • Colgrove, James. State of Immunity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006.
  • Henderson, D.A. Smallpox: the Death of a Disease. New York: Prometheus Books, 2009.
  • Oldstone, Michael. Viruses, Plagues, and History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Offit, Paul A. Vaccinated: One Man’s Quest Defeat the World’s Deadliest Diseases. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
  • Oshinsky, David. Polio: An American Story. Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Plotkin, Stanley A., and Mortimer, Edward. Vaccines. New York: Harper Perennial, 1988.
  • Plotkin, Stanley A., Oshinsky, Walter A, and Offit, Paul A. Vaccines, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008.

Last update 5 November 2018