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000729.jpg, 000728.jpg, 000736.mov

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Plotkin, Stanley and Edward Mortimer. Vaccines. Boulder: Westview, 1988.

The rubella vaccines licensed in 1969 were replaced in the United States by American physician Stanley A. Plotkin’s newly licensed RA27/3 vaccine, which had been used in Europe for years and provided superior protection to that of the earlier vaccines. While previous rubella vaccine viruses had been grown in animal cultures (dog kidney, duck embryo and rabbit kidney had each been used for different strains) the RA27/3 strain was cultured in a cell line derived from human fetal cells. Plotkin's vaccine also replaced the original rubella vaccine in the combined MMR shot, and is still used today.

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Diseases & Vaccines