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This year, two separate teams were at work developing and testing a polio vaccine. Both projects came to disastrous ends.

At New York University, Maurice Brodie, MD (1903-1939), a young researcher, prepared a killed poliovirus vaccine, testing it on chimpanzees, on himself, and finally on children. He enrolled about 11,000 individuals (in both control and vaccine groups) in his trial.

Meanwhile, John Kolmer, MD, of Temple University in Philadelphia developed an attenuated poliovirus vaccine, which he tested in about 10,000 children.

The tests proved a disaster. Several subjects died of polio, and many were paralyzed, made ill, or suffered allergic reactions to the vaccines.

Diseases & Vaccines