History of Vaccines Blog
The World Health Organization is reporting a yellow fever outbreak in Angola that began in late 2015. Since the last reported yellow fever cases in Angola occurred more than 30 years ago, this epidemic, with more than 450 cases and 178 deaths, is alarming. The yellow fever virus is carried by mosquitoes, which infect humans with the virus as the female insects feed on blood. In Africa, 34 other countries are subject to yellow fever, but case counts have been declining in recent years. Yellow fever vaccination is part of the routine infant immunization schedule in most countries at risk for the disease. However, yellow fever immunization coverage is nowhere near universal: in Angola, it has ranged from a low of 37% of eligible infants covered in 1997 to 49% in 2013 and 77% in 2014.
March 16, 2016
Today's blog post is by Carley Roche, a recent graduate from Drexel University and an intern here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. War is difficult on everyone, from the soldiers risking their lives to the civilians who get caught up in these violent affairs. While larger armies and more advanced weapons can aid in victory, an often overlooked variable in war chooses no allegiance: disease. One of the most devastating diseases throughout history during wartime has been typhus. Typhus is a bacterial disease caused by Rickettsia bacteria. There are two types of the disease--endemic typhus and epidemic typhus. Rickettsia typhi causes endemic typhus, also known as murine typhus, and is the least virulent. Spread to humans by fleas on animals such as cats, opossums, raccoons, and rats, most notably from the Norway rat, victims of endemic typhus will experience a bodily rash, high fever, nausea, vomiting, discomfort, and diarrhea. Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus, which is spread via lice. Symptoms are similar to endemic typhus; they are, however, much more severe and can include delirium, hypotension, and even death.
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia is pleased to announce a public program on May 16, 2016, at 8 am on the Zika virus epidemic. Scott C. Weaver, MS, PhD, of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the Galveston (Texas) National Laboratory, and Professor, Departments of Pathology and Microbiology & Immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, will talk about current efforts toward building an effective Zika virus vaccine. Paul A. Offit, MD, vaccine developer and chief of infectious diseases of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, will comment.
January 28, 2016
New information about Zika virus has been released practically every day since Brazilian public health authorities brought global attention to the emerging disease late in 2015. The news has mostly been alarming, with reports of a possible association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly and other birth defects in newborns and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in some of those infected. WHO warns that Zika virus could spread throughout the Western Hemisphere to all countries that have the mosquito host of the virus (the exceptions being Canada and Chile). El Salvadorean public health officials have urged women there not to become pregnant for two years, and locally transmitted cases have now been identified in 23 Western Hemisphere countries.
January 14, 2016
On January 15, 2016, Philadelphia organizations associated with Benjamin Franklin celebrate his 300th birthday with a day of events organized around some of the founding father's most lasting contributions. In the morning, panelists will discuss Franklin's contributions to public health during his time and the way those contributions have continued to influence institutions and practices in Philadelphia and beyond. Speakers are Penny Heaton, MD, Director, Vaccine Development, Global Health Program, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Walter Tsou, MD, former Philadelphia Health Commissioner; and Stanley A. Plotkin, MD, vaccine developer and History of Vaccines Advisory Board member.
December 16, 2015
The Pennsylvania Coalition for Informed Consent (PCIC) formed in March 2015, in the wake of the measles outbreaks that began in December 2014. During that time, Pennsylvania legislators introduced a bill to eliminate philosophical belief exemptions to school vaccinations, to which PCIC objected. PCIC has ties to the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), a group that provided strategic support at the time of PCIC's founding. PCIC is neither, they say, for nor against vaccination, and their mission is “to preserve the vital personal freedom and human right to informed consent, privacy, and choice for medical procedures in Pennsylvania.” Clearly, though (and this is easy to glean from their Facebook), they are hostile to vaccination.
December 12, 2015
For National Influenza Vaccination Week, we welcome Dalton G. Paxman, PhD, MA, FCPP, Regional Health Administrator for the mid-Atlantic region, where he oversees public health initiatives for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Dr. Paxman is a Fellow here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia.
October 1, 2015
Yesterday we conducted our second annual influenza vaccination clinic here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. By offering the clinic here, during work hours, and for free, we are hoping to reduce as many barriers to vaccination as possible, such as the trip to the doctor or the pharmacy, needing one's insurance card, inertia. Of course we are also hoping to keep staffers, their families and friends, and building visitors healthy, too! We partnered with a local RiteAid pharmacy to give the vaccine, and to provide an incentive, we gave a $10 Trader Joe's gift card to anyone who got the vaccine. The first year I began tracking uptake of influenza vaccine here (2012) only 43% of full-time staff took the vaccine. In 2013, I conducted a brief influenza vaccination awareness campaign and about 70% staffers took the vaccine. Last year, after offering the vaccine here in the building, we were up to 86%, or 38 of 44, vaccinated staffers, including those who’d been vaccinated elsewhere.
September 17, 2015
Last night I had the pleasure of attending a talk here at the College by Bert Hansen, PhD, Professor of History Baruch College, City University of New York. Hansen has long written about the visual arts and the history of medicine, and his talk last night focused on the role of the visual arts in Louis Pasteur’s life and on Pasteur’s influence on artists and their work. Pasteur studied drawing as a young man, and Hansen showed examples of his portraiture -- nicely wrought depictions of Pasteur’s mother and father. (About 30 of Pasteur’s charcoals, pastels, and other works survive.) After he ended his art studies, Pasteur continued to participate in the lively visuals arts world in Europe, traveling to other countries to visit museums and exhibitions and attending the annual exhibitions and salons in Paris. Pasteur was not alone in his devotions; the government-sponsored exhibitions drew crowds of more than half a milion people each year.
August 3, 2015
Today's blog post, written for National Immunization Awareness Month, is by P. Loughman. The photograph of a young woman and small boy is so precious that my cousin won’t take it out of the oval frame. He was her father and kept the photo on top of his bureau until the day he died. She was Seraphina (according to my mother some years ago); maybe Filomena (ventured my uncle when studying the family tree); definitely Josephine (said my cousin who knew best). No one agreed on her official first name, but everyone knew exactly who she was and how she died. The oldest child born to a stone mason from Naples and a multilingual Greek mother from Alexandria, Josephine Rosiello was a confident girl and capable helper with nine younger siblings in early 20th century Brooklyn. Her immigrant parents preferred nicknames and the family called her Fina. Dressed in fashionable flapper styles, she forged ahead into the new modern world, the epitome of a first generation American, until she succumbed to polio in October of 1924.