• Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease caused by Salmonella typhi. While rare in industrialized countries, typhoid fever is a significant threat in some low-income countries.

  • Cholera is a diarrheal illness caused by an infection with cholera bacteria. Oral vaccines are available to prevent cholera.

  • Ebola virus disease reached unprecedented epidemic levels in 2014. Vaccines to prevent EVD are in clinical trials.

  • Scientists are developing ways to harness the immune system to treat cancer. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines are in development.

  • Chickenpox is an illness caused by the Varicella zoster virus. It was once an almost universal childhood illness. It is much less common now owing to widespread vaccination.

  • Shingles, or herpes zoster, is caused by the Varicella zoster virus. This is the same virus that causes chickenpox.