Public Health

Vaccination Reminder Systems

From CDC Have you ever forgotten to buy milk when you go to the grocery store? How about missing someone’s birthday? Because of the fast-paced world we live in, there are always going to be things that we forget to do. Some of them are more important than others. Bills need to be paid on time or we get fees charged to us. Applications need to be filed on time or we could miss out on an opportunity. Vaccines need to be given on time to offer the best chances of their providing immunity. More

Rabies in the Summer

Foxes and other wild animals may carry rabies. Jans Canon via Flickr, CC by 3.0 Memorial Day is the traditional start to the summer season in the United States. While having fun and being with friends and family are always at the top of the list of things to do during summer, being safe and staying healthy should also be on our minds. There are some things to be mindful of when heading outdoors to parks and forests. These things include preventing bites from ticks and mosquitoes, cooking and storing food properly, wearing proper sunscreen, swimming safely, and rabies.

Why rabies?

Rabies is a viral disease of mammals. While there are plenty of cases of rabies in animals in the United States, human cases are extremely rare, with one or two cases reported each year. This is because there is a robust public health system that responds to cases of possible and confirmed rabies exposure in humans. There is also a functioning veterinary health system -- and public policies -- that require immunization of household pets like cats and dogs. In the rest of the world, most of the 55,000 deaths from human rabies each year happen as a result of dog bites.[1] More

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Hepatitis A in Indiana

CDC/Amanda Mills On May 10, 2012, the Vanderburgh (Indiana) County Health Department issued a health alert regarding hepatitis A associated with a local restaurant. A person with hepatitis A had worked at the restaurant as a bartender, handling food and drinks, between April 20 and May 3, 2012, when the person would have been contagious. Because hepatitis A vaccine is useful in preventing hepatitis A only for 14 days after exposure, some of the people who were exposed did not qualify for vaccination. They were asked to seek medical care if they showed signs and symptoms of hepatitis A. However, those who ate at this restaurant between April 27 and May 3 had an opportunity to be immunized until May 17, 2012.[1] As of May 14, 2012, more than 500 people had requested the vaccination from the health department. More

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California Immunization Exemption Legislation

**Note: this post was updated on 10/1/2012. California Assemblyman Richard Pan, MD (D - Sacramento), introduced Assembly Bill 2109 (AB 2109) on February 23, 2012. In California, parents who object to vaccinating their children may sign a “letter or affidavit stating that the immunization is contrary to his or her beliefs” to use California’s personal belief exemption to vaccinations required for school attendance. AB 2109 expands on that requirement by mandating that parents consult with a licensed healthcare provider in order to receive the exemption. Under AB 2109, the provider would sign a form attesting that he or she informed that parent about the risks and benefits of vaccination and the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases. The parent would sign the form as well. The bill was approved by the California Assembly on May 11, 2012, by a vote of 44 to 19. It was approved by the California State Senate, and Governor Jerry Brown signed it into law on September 29, 2012. More

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Cholera Vaccination in Haiti

Cholera vaccine, photo from WHO Cholera is one of those diseases that you really don’t want to get. It begins like any other intestinal illness, with abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Suddenly, a very profuse, watery diarrhea develops. So much water leaves the body through the diarrhea that the person’s mouth becomes dry. He stops urinating because he has no fluid left. Eyes become sunken, and the sufferer loses his energy. During the course of the disease, a person with cholera may pass as many as 13 US gallons (or 50 liters) of fluid. Left untreated, cholera can kill a person in a matter of hours to days from severe dehydration. More

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Philadelphia Study Examines Varicella and Herpes Zoster

Chickenpox lesions on back. Wellcome Collection, London. Varicella, or chickenpox, used to be a common childhood infection. Today’s grandparents and most parents can describe vividly what it was like to have chickenpox or to care for a child with this viral illness. Since the broad use of varicella vaccine, the number of cases in the United States has dropped dramatically. Even infants under the age of 6 months who are too young to get the vaccine have had a 90% drop in their rate of chickenpox since the introduction and widespread use of varicella vaccine. But chickenpox has not completely disappeared.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a city that requires evidence of varicella immunization to attend school (with certain exceptions) and maintains a vigorous surveillance of students attending school to see who has developed chickenpox. This tracking allows public health authorities to see the pattern of spread of chickenpox. A study published in the May 1 edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases examined varicella cases over a 7-year period, during which about 2300 cases of varicella were seen in Philadelphia public school students. More

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The Modern American Vaccine Debate 4/24

The History of Vaccines invites you to attend The Wistar Institute Authors Series program “The Modern American Vaccine Debate.” The event will be held Tuesday, April 24, at 6:30 pm at The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University in Philadelphia. It is presented as part of the Philadelphia Science Festival. Panelists include Paul Offit, MD, Mark Largent, PhD, Hildegund Ertl, MD, and Jason Schwartz, MBE. The event is free, but registration is required. We hope to see you there – the History of Vaccines will be exhibiting at the event. More

Adenovirus Vaccines Reinstated After Long Absence

Adenovirus 3, 4, 7 vaccine, 1958. The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Eighteen years after the sole manufacturer of adenovirus vaccine announced its discontinuation, adenovirus type 7 and type 4 vaccines are once again available for U.S. military trainees. The adenovirus vaccination program resumed in October 2011, with enlisted soldiers receiving the vaccine during basic training. The re-licensure of the vaccine required significant investment by the U.S. government and long years of testing and regulatory review, during which rates of adenovirus illness in the military rose. The history of the vaccine’s disappearance illustrates the precarious position of some of our lesser-used vaccines. More

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Hotez at CHOP on Neglected Tropical Diseases

Ascaris lumbricoides, CDC/James Gathany On Wednesday, January 11, 2012, Peter J. Hotez, MD, PhD, gave the Maurice Hilleman Pediatric Grand Rounds lecture at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia/University of Pennsylvania. Hotez is an internationally recognized expert on tropical diseases and vaccine development and holds the following positions: Professor of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology & Microbiology and Chief of the Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine; Endowed Chair of Tropical Pediatrics at Texas Children’s Hospital; and President, Sabin Vaccine Institute. More

U.S. Cell Line Facility to Produce Pandemic Influenza Vaccine

Influenza virion, CDC/Cynthia Goldsmith A Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc., manufacturing facility in North Carolina has geared up to produce pandemic influenza vaccine made from mammalian cell lines, rather than from the traditional hen egg-based methods that have been used for more than 50 years. The plant, open since November 2009, was dedicated in a December 12 ceremony after Novartis submitted a Biological License Application for the vaccine to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The cell-based system and production methods are similar to those that have been licensed and used for seasonal influenza vaccine in Europe since 2007. More