History of Vaccines Blog
On January 15, 2016, Philadelphia organizations associated with Benjamin Franklin celebrate his 300th birthday with a day of events organized around some of the founding father's most lasting contributions. In the morning, panelists will discuss Franklin's contributions to public health during his time and the way those contributions have continued to influence institutions and practices in Philadelphia and beyond. Speakers are Penny Heaton, MD, Director, Vaccine Development, Global Health Program, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Walter Tsou, MD, former Philadelphia Health Commissioner; and Stanley A. Plotkin, MD, vaccine developer and History of Vaccines Advisory Board member.
December 16, 2015
The Pennsylvania Coalition for Informed Consent (PCIC) formed in March 2015, in the wake of the measles outbreaks that began in December 2014. During that time, Pennsylvania legislators introduced a bill to eliminate philosophical belief exemptions to school vaccinations, to which PCIC objected. PCIC has ties to the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), a group that provided strategic support at the time of PCIC's founding. PCIC is neither, they say, for nor against vaccination, and their mission is “to preserve the vital personal freedom and human right to informed consent, privacy, and choice for medical procedures in Pennsylvania.” Clearly, though (and this is easy to glean from their Facebook), they are hostile to vaccination.
December 12, 2015
For National Influenza Vaccination Week, we welcome Dalton G. Paxman, PhD, MA, FCPP, Regional Health Administrator for the mid-Atlantic region, where he oversees public health initiatives for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Dr. Paxman is a Fellow here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia.
October 1, 2015
Yesterday we conducted our second annual influenza vaccination clinic here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. By offering the clinic here, during work hours, and for free, we are hoping to reduce as many barriers to vaccination as possible, such as the trip to the doctor or the pharmacy, needing one's insurance card, inertia. Of course we are also hoping to keep staffers, their families and friends, and building visitors healthy, too! We partnered with a local RiteAid pharmacy to give the vaccine, and to provide an incentive, we gave a $10 Trader Joe's gift card to anyone who got the vaccine. The first year I began tracking uptake of influenza vaccine here (2012) only 43% of full-time staff took the vaccine. In 2013, I conducted a brief influenza vaccination awareness campaign and about 70% staffers took the vaccine. Last year, after offering the vaccine here in the building, we were up to 86%, or 38 of 44, vaccinated staffers, including those who’d been vaccinated elsewhere.
September 17, 2015
Last night I had the pleasure of attending a talk here at the College by Bert Hansen, PhD, Professor of History Baruch College, City University of New York. Hansen has long written about the visual arts and the history of medicine, and his talk last night focused on the role of the visual arts in Louis Pasteur’s life and on Pasteur’s influence on artists and their work. Pasteur studied drawing as a young man, and Hansen showed examples of his portraiture -- nicely wrought depictions of Pasteur’s mother and father. (About 30 of Pasteur’s charcoals, pastels, and other works survive.) After he ended his art studies, Pasteur continued to participate in the lively visuals arts world in Europe, traveling to other countries to visit museums and exhibitions and attending the annual exhibitions and salons in Paris. Pasteur was not alone in his devotions; the government-sponsored exhibitions drew crowds of more than half a milion people each year.
August 3, 2015
Today's blog post, written for National Immunization Awareness Month, is by P. Loughman. The photograph of a young woman and small boy is so precious that my cousin won’t take it out of the oval frame. He was her father and kept the photo on top of his bureau until the day he died. She was Seraphina (according to my mother some years ago); maybe Filomena (ventured my uncle when studying the family tree); definitely Josephine (said my cousin who knew best). No one agreed on her official first name, but everyone knew exactly who she was and how she died. The oldest child born to a stone mason from Naples and a multilingual Greek mother from Alexandria, Josephine Rosiello was a confident girl and capable helper with nine younger siblings in early 20th century Brooklyn. Her immigrant parents preferred nicknames and the family called her Fina. Dressed in fashionable flapper styles, she forged ahead into the new modern world, the epitome of a first generation American, until she succumbed to polio in October of 1924.
July 15, 2015
The herpes zoster vaccine commercially available in the United States (Zostavax, Merck, generic zoster vaccine live) is 51% effective at preventing shingles in adults ages 60 and older, but it is less effective for older adults. For those over age 70, it is only 38% effective at preventing disease. Vaccine maker GSK hoped to produce a vaccine that worked better for older adults and that could be used by people with immunosuppressive conditions. (The licensed zoster vaccine is a live, attenuated virus vaccine and so is contraindicated in people with suppressed immune systems.)
June 9, 2015
At its annual meeting in Chicago, the American Medical Association adopted a policy on June 8 to support the end of non-medical exemptions to school vaccination requirements. This policy aligns with legislative efforts in many states to end personal belief exemptions that allow parents to cite a strong conviction as a reason to lawfully exempt their children from mandatory vaccinations required for school entry. The AMA policy goes further by recommending that religious exemptions be eliminated as well. Vermont just passed a law, effective July 2016, that would end philosophical belief exemptions in the state but leave religious exemptions in place. A similar bill is pending in the Pennsylvania legislature. (We hosted a panel discussion on this legislation in mid May.) Also in May the California Senate advanced a bill that would end all non-medical exemptions for school entry. The California Assembly Health Committee is considering the bill as of Tuesday, June 8.
May 22, 2015
How far should state power extend into medical decisions that parents make on behalf of their children? What is a parent’s responsibility to children in the community who have particular susceptibility to harm from infectious diseases? These questions framed the discussion we had last week here at The College of Physicians of Philadelphia on pending legislation in Pennsylvania to eliminate personal belief exemptions to school vaccination requirements. Both the bill’s sponsor, Pennsylvania State Senator Daylin Leach (17th District) and Paul A. Offit, MD, argued that personal belief exemptions allow parents to shirk responsibility for keeping their communities safe and healthy. The Honorable James G. Colins, President Judge Emeritus, Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania, introduced and moderated the event.
In late 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved a 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine. In early 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices made the recommendation that it be offered as one of the available HPV vaccines this country. The vaccine, made by Merck, is known commercially as Gardasil 9 and generically as Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine, Recombinant (9vHPV). This change in the vaccine will make HPV vaccination more broadly effective; 9vHPV protects against HPV strains that cause 90% of cervical cancers – as compared with the quadrivalent vaccine, whose two oncogenic strains account for approximately 68% of cervical cancers in the United States. Moreover, the new vaccine may provide protection to subgroups of women who are more vulnerable to HPV types not in the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines.